## Normal Forms

GATE NOTESNormal Forms in DBMS Steps to find Normal Forms- Find Candidates key Find Prime attributes and Non prime attributes Check for Normal Forms, from starting from 1NF to higher order. 1NF- Relational DBMS does not allow multi-valued or composite attribute. 2NF- Relational DBMS does not allow partial dependency. 3NF- Either LHS of an FD […]

## L-HOSPITAL RULE

GATE NOTES,L-Hospital Rule

## Static Single Assignment

GATE NOTESStatic Single AssignmentAccording to Static Single Assignment A variable cannot be used more than once in the LHS A variable should be initialised atmost once.

## Birthday Attack

GATE NOTESBIRTHDAY ATTACK Birthday attack work only with random messages and not with chosen messages.

GATE Notes, Probability Formulas Probability Range 0 ≤ P(A) ≤ 1 Rule of Complementary Events P(Ac) + P(A) = 1 Rule of Addition P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A∩B) Disjoint Events Events A and B are disjoint iff P(A∩B) = 0 Independent Events Events A and B are independent iff P(A∩B) = P(A) ⋅ […]

CS GATE 2014If the matrix A is such that  then the determinant of A is equal to (A) 0  (B) 1  (C) 2 (D) 3 Sol.

GATE 2018 SYLLABILU Decomposition ?[A] = [L][U] L- Lower triangular matrix.U- Upper triangular matrix. For example-

GATE 2018 SYLLABIUnique, Infinite, Many, Consistent, Inconsistent Solutions ?1) a₁x + b₁y = c₁2) a₂x + b₂y = c₂ Ifa₁/a₂ ≠ b₁/b₂ Than, its called unique solution.it means intercepting lines.Its also called consistent solution. Ifa₁/a₂ = b₁/b₂ ≠ c₁/c₂Than its called no solution. It means parallel lines. Its also called inconsistent solution. Ifa₁/a₂ = b₁/b₂ = c₁/c₂Than, its […]

GATE 2005What are the eigenvalues of the following 2 × 2 matrix?  SOL.

Eigen Values and Characteristics roots ? To find Eigen values use, | A – λI | = 0For characteristics roots, ( A – λI )X = 0When represents characteristics roots in matrix they called Eigen vectors.If A is an n × n matrix, then the sum of the n eigenvalues of A is the trace of […]