Category: Linux

Program to use conditional statements in Linux

Q. Conditional statements को दर्शाने के लिये शैल programming लिखिये।Ans.Bash में निम्लिखित कंडीशनल स्टेटमेंट्स है –<![if !supportLists]> 1)      <![endif]> statement (Simple If)<![if !supportLists]> 2)      <![endif]> statement (If-Else)<![if !supportLists]> 3)      <![endif]> statement (Else If ladder)<![if !supportLists]> 4)      <![endif]> if) <![if !supportLists]> 1)      <![endif]> Bash statementSyntax:if [ conditional expression ]then            statement1            statement2Fi Example: <![if !supportLists]> 2)      <![endif]> Bash statement Syntax: If [ conditional expression ]then            statement1            statement2else            statement3            statement4FiExample: <![if !supportLists]> 3)      <![endif]> Bash Syntax: If [ conditional expression1 ]then            statement1            statement2elif [ conditional expression2 ]then            statement3            statement4else            statement5fiExample: <![if !supportLists]> 4)      <![endif]> Bash Syntax:If […]

Program parameter passing in shell script

Q. शैल programming मे parameter किस प्रकार से पास करते है? समझाइये ।ORशैल programming मे parameter और agreement को उदाहरण सहित विस्तार से समझाइये ।Ans. शैल स्क्रिप्ट मे पैरामीटर को पास करने के लिए सर्वप्रथम शैल स्क्रिप्ट क्रिएट करते है| शैल स्क्रिप्ट क्रिएट करने के बाद जब उसे कमांड लाइन पर रन करते है तब सर्वप्रथम स्क्रिप्ट का नेम टाइप करते है एवं उसके बाद जो पैरामीटर पास करने […]

Program to expain ps commands

Q. Write a program to explain PS command ?Ans.Ps कमांड active processes को दिखाती है |Syntax:ps कमांड का syntax निम्नलिखित है –ps [option] कुछ basic ps कमांड्स निम्नलिखित है –1`) Displays all processes on a terminal, with the exception of group leaders.Ps –a 2) Displays scheduler data.Ps –c 3) Displays all processes with the exception of session […]

RGPV Diploma: Linux Unit 4

RGPV Diploma: Linux: Unit 4   Q1. शैल को परिभाषित किजिये ? Or शैल क्या है? किस प्रकार से यह kernel से भिन्न है, समझाइये ? OR शैल को समझाइये ? OR Linux मे उपलब्ध विभिन्न प्रकार के शैल को सम्झाइये ? OR शैल क्या है? शैल kernel से किस प्रकार से भिन्न है? शैल […]

RGPV Diploma: Linux Unit 6

UNIT 6 Q1. Client एवम्‌ server कि अवधारणा को समझाइये ? OR Client /server मॉडल से आपका क्या अभिप्राय है? क्लाइंट्स तथा सर्वर, विभिन्न मशीन या एक ही मशीन पर दो लॉजिकल एंटिटी होती है | क्लाइंट प्रोग्राम,सर्वर के पास रिक्वेस्ट सेंड करता है तथा सर्वर प्रोग्राम, क्लाइंट की रिक्वेस्ट का रिस्पांस देता है| क्लाइंट […]

RGPV diploma: linux unit 5

LINUX UNIT 5 Q1. System administrator को समझाइये । OR System administrator के role पर संक्षिप्त टिप्पणी लिखिये। OR   एक कार्यरत Linux system के रखरखाव मे सम्मलित सामान्य प्रबंधन कार्य क्या क्या है? OR Linux system के रखरखाव के लिए सामान्य प्रबन्धन कार्य कोन कोन से है? OR System administrator क्या है? इस्के उत्तर्दायित्वो को लिखिये। OR System administrator के विभिन्न roles को समझाइये । OR System administrator कोन से सामान्य administrative कार्य करता है? OR System administrator के विभिन्न roles क्या है? OR System administrator कि भुमिका को समझाइये ? OR System administrator से आप क्या समझते है? System administrator के विभिन्न roles लिखिये। Ans. सिस्टम एडमिनिस्ट्रेटर या फिर सिस्टम एडमिन एक व्यक्ति होता है | यह एक ऐसा व्यक्ति होता है जो की कंप्यूटर सिस्टम […]

RGPVDiplomaLinux: Unit 1

LINUX UNIT 1   Q 1 लिनक्स की शुरूआत कब हुई ? समझाइए | Ans. लिनक्स की शुरुआत 1990 में हुई थी | लिनक्स को लिनस तोरवेल्ड्स ने बनाया था | उन्होंने 5 अक्टूबर सन 1991 को लिनक्स का पहला वर्जन रिलीज किया था | इसके बाद लिनक्स को डेवलप करने  में कैलिफोर्निया के ट्रांसमेंटा […]

Conditional statements in Linux

Some of the conditional statements in Linux are- 1) statement (Simple If)2) statement (If-Else)3) statement (Else If ladder)4) if 1) Bash statementSyntax:if [ conditional expression ]then statement1 statement2Fi 2) Bash statementSyntax:If [ conditional expression ]then statement1 statement2else statement3 statement4Fi Example: 3) Bash If..elif..else..fiSyntax:If [ conditional expression1 ]then statement1 statement2elif […]

Shail in Linux

Shail is an interface between user and computer. Shail gives user a platform to write their commands.Some of the uses of Shail are- Shail is used as interface between user and kernel (Computer). Shail is used to execute the command. Shail is used to write Shail script. Difference between Shail and Kernel – Kernel Shail […]


With pipe tee commands is used. Tee reads data from input source and and write it to another file. Syntax of tee command is : tee [OPTION] fileName. For example:$ echo “Professor Jayesh” | tee jayesh In above example, tee command write the ‘Professor Jayesh’ in file ‘jayesh’. In above example we seen that when we […]


Pipe works like a filter. It is used to connect more than one commands.Symbol for pipe is  “ | “.For example:$ who | wcIn above example output of left side command ‘who’ to the pipe  is added to the input of right side command ‘wc’ of the pipe. In above example both the commands executed […]


Redirection is a process of redirecting streams/ data to a file on command line.Redirection uses symbol ‘ > ’ and ‘ >> ‘. Redirection recognize the character written on left side of ‘ > ‘, and transfer it to right side of ‘ > ‘ . Left side of  ‘ > ‘ is for input […]

Modes of Vi

Vi editor have 3 working modes-1) Command Mode2) Input Mode3) Ex Mode or Last Line Mode Command Mode: It is starting mode of Vi editor. Commands are used in this mode of Vi editor.For example, to copy, move text this mode is used. Input Mode: ‘i’ key is pressed to switch from command mode to […]


Inode is an unique identification number , which uniquely exist for each file in Linux system.An Inode is a data structure that stores the following information about a file – Size of file Device ID User ID of the file Group ID of the file The file mode information and access privileges for owner, group […]

Absolute and Relative Pathnames

Absolute Pathname:- Its full pathname of any file or directory that means where a file reside in its parent directory.For example:  /usr/share/profjayesh is full pathname for the directory named profjayesh. Relative Pathname:-  Its not full pathname of any file or directory, its only actual name of file.For example: In /usr/share/profjayesh the name profjayesh is relative pathname.

Editing text files in Linux

“Text editors” are used to edit the text files in Linux. One of the text editor used in Linux is as below. Vi/Vim text editor. Vi  is a visual text editor which is available in all the versions of Linux. We can start Vi editor in two ways. Without using file name with Vi. Such that : $Vi, see […]

Changing identities in Linux

Sometimes it’s necessary for regular user to use some super privileges to perform a task. Than regular user needed to be change its identity from regular to the superuser or root user.Changing of identities is shown in below image.There are three ways to change identities – Login log out like a regular user By using […]

The root user

Root user is created during the installation of system. To login on root user steps are shown in below image. Root user have following special permission: Manipulation of files To run the programs To change the setup of computer system Due to above special permission of root users its not safe to login as root […]

Changing password in Linux

$passwd, command is used to change the password in Linux system. Steps to change the password : Enter the passwd command in terminal It will ask, type the current password. After entering current password, enter new password not same as previous one Re enter the new password to confirm.

Elements of the X Window System

X-WINDOW SYSTEM X – system provides display interface between system and an user.  X- windows system gives graphical user interface which makes use of system easy for the user.For example: ELEMENTS OF X-WINDOW SYSTEM X- window system have following elements : X :  It provides framework to the Linux system.  To work system properly its provides […]

Logging in a Linux system

To log in into a Linux system it’s compulsory to have an account on it.Account of user is created by system administrator, who also provide an username and password to access the Linux system. After getting account on Linux system from system administrator it’s necessary to use username and password each time while entering into […]

Linux distribution

Linux is just a “Kernel”. To make Linux a complete operating system, it needed to be combine with other free available softwares. Linux distributions do this job. To install Linux, selection of a Linux distribution is must. There are many different Linux distributions available which are as follows: UbuntuLinux MintDebianFedoraCentOS/ Red Hat Enterprise LinuxopenSUSE/ SUSE […]

Linux origins

Linux was started in 1990. Linux was developed by Finnish student Linus Torvalds as his project (Free operatingsystem Kernel). Linus Torvalds released the first version of Linux on 5 October 1991. Later Students of Helsinki university, from California’s. Some of the releases of Linux are as follows: 1992, Linux 1.0 version, it needed Unix to […]

Understanding Open Source Software

Open source softwares are softwares which are having following characteristics: Softwares are free of cost. Source codes free availability. Right to manipulate software. All users are having equal rights. All rights granted must flow through all redistributed versions, Use of open source software must not restrict user of other softwares (closed source software). Some of […]