Category: Software engineering

Version Control

What is a Version ? A version is a collection of software configuration items. Each software version is different from previous one in some aspects. For example:WhatsApp Messenger Version 2.17.79What is Version Control ? It is a method keeping a record of changes. It is a method for centrally storing files. It is record of […]

Change Management

What is Change Management ? Change management refers to  managing changes to artifacts, such as code changes or documentation changes. Change management means to control, support, manage changes to the software. Change management can be described as the process required to implementing an organizational change. Change management requires some ‘change management tools’ that  are used […]

Software Configuration Management (SCM)

What is software configuration management ? In software engineering, Software configuration management is the task of tracking and controlling changes in software. SCM  includes revision control and establishment of Baselines. Software configuration management can be abbreviated as SCM or S/W CM. What is the purpose of SCM ? To identify the change in software. To […]

Responsibilities of Software Project manager

Planning Settings goals Time management Budget allocation and cost estimates Implementation and Monitoring 1. Planning: For a project to be successful a project manager must start planning before starting it. A projects success totally depends on the planning of the project manager.A project manager’s planning include, The scope of the project– The project manager must define […]

Testing Methods

Static testingDynamic testingBlack Box testingWhite box testingVisual (GUI) testing Static Testing: Testing of the software when its not executing. Its start before software runtime. Its done during verification process. It can be performed manually as well as with automated software. It does not need computer because testing done without executing the program. For example: Reviewing […]

Test Oracles

An Oracle is a mechanism to determine whether the program passed or fail a test. A test oracle is a source of expected results for a test case. A test oracle is a method that verifies whether software executed correctly for a test case. Test oracle is used to check the correctness of the output […]

Code inspection

What is the Code Inspection in Software Testing: It is the most formal type of review. It is a type of Static testing. Its main purpose is to find defects. During code inspection documents are prepared and checked thoroughly by the reviewers. A separate preparation is carried out to find the defects in product. Code […]

Software testing

Software testing is a process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding the software bugs. It is the process used to identify the correctness,  completeness and quality of developed computer software. It is a  process of verifying and validating a software program or application or product. Software testing is the part […]

Software Static and Dynamic Analysis

STATIC ANALYSIS:What is Static Analysis in Software Testing? Static analysis involve software under test to detect possible defects before running the program. During testing software is not in execution mode. Static analysis is done after coding. Static analysis can be performed by a person or a machine. In Static analysis a “walk through” is made […]

Class diagram

What is Class diagram ? It illustrate the relationship between classes in the system. It is the basic building block of the object oriented system. It represent the static view of a model. What are the components of Class diagram? Class diagram consist a rectangle with three compartment. First compartment contains name of class. Second […]

Activity Diagram

What is Activity Diagram ? Activity diagrams are graphical representation of workflow of stepwise activities. It is similar to flowchart. It shows dynamic view of the system. It is series of actions/events. Actions are represented by oval shapes. Actions are connected by arrows. Arrow shows the flow of activity diagram. It also shows decision points […]

Use case diagram

What is Use Case Diagram? It is list of actions or events, shows interaction between an an actor (human or external system) and a system. It is used in early stages of model. It is the simplest diagram. It is used to show discrete unit or work. What are the component of Use Case diagram […]


What is UML ? Unified Modelling Language. UML used for visualizing, specifying, constructing,documenting of artifact of a software system. It is also used for modelling non software system. It write systems blueprint. It is standard for building object oriented and component based systems. It describe only design or structure of a system. History of UML? […]

Software Design Process

What is Software Design Process ? Software design process is a process to user requirements after analysis in suitable form so that a programmer can write coding or implements it. Software design process is an important stage in SDLC (Software development life cycle ) model. Each SDLC model is having a software design process. Some […]

Software requirements elicitation

Software requirements elicitation is the practice of collecting requirements of a system from users, customers and stockholders. Problems in requirements elicitation :1) Problems of scope : System boundary is not well defined, that may lead to unnecessary design information, or necessary design information may left out.2) Problems of understanding : It occurs in following way […]

Functional and Nonfunctional Requirements

Functional Requirements: Requirements include functionalities  and services that are needed by the users to meet their need and to achieve their business objectives. Typical functional requirements are: Administrative functions Authentication Authorization levels Audit Tracking Business Rules Certification Requirements External Interfaces Historical Data Legal or Regulatory Requirements Transaction correction, adjustments and cancellations. Non Functional Requirements: Requirements that specifies […]

Rational Unified Processes

RUP: Rational Unified Processes. It is a software engineering process management tool encapsulating best practices in software development and maintenance.RUP includes following some of the best practices: Iterative and incremental development of software. Requirements management. Software components reuse. Visual Modelling. Software quality verification. Software configuration. Software change management. RUP consists of well defined sequential phases […]

Capability Maturity Model

CMM: Capability Maturity Model. Developed by W. humphrey at Carnegie Mellon University. CMM does not recommended particular set of mature processes to be followed by the organization. Can be used to assess the maturity of existing process. Following is the illustration of CMM: CMM maturity levels are: Initial Repeatable Defined Managed Optimized Based on the […]

Spiral Model

Spiral model is an evolutionary software model. Spiral model may be viewed as a Meta model, because it can accommodate any process model. Spiral model focuses on identifying and eliminating high risk problems. Following is the illustration of Spiral model: First Quadrant :It determine the objective and alternative solution possible for the phase under consideration. […]

Incremental Model

Incremental model as the name indicated produces many versions. Each version with a new functionality. In it whole requirements is divided into various builds. Each new build carry new functionality over previous build. It seems like a multi “Waterfall Model cycle”. In this each module passes through requirements, analysis, design, coding, testing, deployment, maintenance etc. […]

RAD Model

Rapid Application Development Model. It is a type of Incremental Model. It is high speed adaptation of Waterfall model. In it projects are developed in component as mini projects. Than mini projects are assembled in a single project. It takes very short period of time to construct a project. Customers can give feedback easily on […]

Prototype Model

It requires that before carrying out actual software its prototype (model) must be created. Prototype model is a toy implementation of system. A prototype usually a demo version of actual system, possibly with limited functionality, low reliability, and inefficient performance compare to actual system. Detailed information is not available in it. Idea behind it is […]

Waterfall Model

It was the first model introduced. It is also known as linear sequential life cycle model. It is very simple and understand to use. It is basic of all the process development models. It is a theoretical model, not to use practically. It is called Waterfall because stages goes top to bottom like a natural […]

SDLC Models

SDLC: SDLC stands for software development life cycle. The SDLC is a term used in software engineering to describe as a process for Planning, creating, testing and deploying an information system. It is also called software development process. ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for SDLC. SDLC consists the following stages: Requirement Analysis Design Implementation/Coding […]

Software Process Models

It is the processes or methodology being selected for the development of project with an aim and goal. It specify the various stages in which a development is carried out. There are many factors to select a software process models, like project cost, development team, time duration, objective, perspective etc. There are various software process […]

Requirements elicitation

REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION Requirements elicitation means requirement gathering.  Which is collection of the requirements of a system by communicating with users, customers, and other stakeholders. Requirements elicitation methods: Survey/Questionnaire: Some questions are submitted to stockholders and their answers are recorded for analysis.  Document Analysis: Requirements are collected from old product documents. Interviews: Requirements are collected by […]

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CBSE NET DECEMBER 2012 PAPER II The maturity levels used to measure a process are (A) Initial, Repeatable, Defined, Managed, Optimized.(B) Primary, Secondary, Defined,Managed, Optimized. (C) Initial, Stating, Defined, Managed, Optimized. (D) None of the above  Ans:- A Explanation:For explanation click here.

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CBSE NET JUNE 2014 PAPER III Which one of the following is not a key process area in CMM level 5 ? (A) Defect prevention (B) Process change management(C) Software product engineering (D) Technology change management  Ans:- C Explanation:For explanation click here.

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CBSE NET JUNE 2013 PAPER II Cyclomatic complexity of a flow graph G with n vertices and e edges is A)V(G)=e+n-2B)V(G)=e-n+2C)V(G)=e+n+2D)V(G)=e-n-2 Ans: (B) Explanation:To solve above problem, first remember these 3 rules to compute the cyclomatic complexity.1. The number of regions correspond to the cyclomatic complexity.2. Cyclomatic complexity V(G) for a flow graph G, is defined […]

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CBSE NET JUNE 2012 PAPER III Which one of the following statements is incorrect ? (A) The number of regions corresponds to the cyclomatic complexity.(B) Cyclometric complexity for a flow graph G is V(G) = N – E + 2, where E is the number of edges and N is the number of nodes in […]

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CBSE NET DECEMBER 2011 PAPER II McCabe’s cyclomatic metric V(G) of a graph with n vertices, e edges and p connected component isA)eB)nC)e-n+pD)e-n+2p Ans: (C) Explanation:According to McCabe’s cyclomatic metric of a graph V(G)=E-N+P where P refers to connected components.

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CBSE NET DECEMBER 2013 PAPER III Given a flow graph with 10 nodes, 13 edges and one connected components, the number of regions and the number of predicate(decision) nodes in the flow graph will beA)4,5B)5,4C)3,1D)13,8 Ans:-B Explanation:-To solve above problem, first remember these 3 rules to compute the cyclomatic complexity.1. The number of regions correspond […]

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CBSE NET JUNE 2014 PAPER III Assume that a program will experience 200 failures in infinite time. It has now experienced 100 failures. The initial failure intensity was 20 failures/CPU hour. Then the current failure intensity will be  (A) 5 failures/CPU hour(B) 10 failures/CPU hour(C) 20 failures/CPU hour(D) 40 failures /CPU hour Ans:- B Explanation:– […]