Differentiate between Database approach v/s Traditional file accessing approach.
Traditional File Approach
All Application shares a pool of related and integrated data.
Use separate data file for each application
Minimal data redundancy – Separate data files are integrated in to a single, logical structure.
Data redundancy – independent data files included a lot of duplicated data.
Each occurrence of a data item is recorded only once.
Same data is recorded and stored in several files.
Single version of data exist
Data inconsistency – several versions of the same data may exist.
Single update is required.
Same update must be done in all occurrences of same data item in each file.
A database is developed to share the data among the user who access to it
Users have very little opportunity to share data outside of their own application.
There is centralized control for overall data in database.
There is no centralized control for overall data in different files.
Data independence – the database system separates data descriptions from the application programs that use the data in it
Data dependence – description of files, records and data items are embedded within individual application programs.
Data structure can be modified without changing the programs accessing the data
Modification to data files requires the programs which access that file to be modified.
Less program maintenance
High program maintenance
Data are organized in to a single logical structure with logical relationships defined between associated data
Lack of data integration – accessing data in several files are difficult
Easy to manipulation data
Difficult to manipulation data