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Difference Between Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) and Procedural Programming

Feature

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

Procedural Programming

Basic Unit

Object (Instance of a Class)

Procedure or Function

Data and Functions

Bundled together in Objects (Encapsulation)

Separated – Data in Structures, Functions outside

Program Structure

Organized around Objects and Classes

Organized around Procedures and Functions

Data Abstraction

Emphasizes abstraction through Classes and Objects

Less emphasis on abstraction, data may be exposed

Code Reusability

Promotes code reuse through Inheritance

Code reuse is achieved through functions and procedures

Inheritance

Hierarchical structure, allows for class hierarchy

Typically not supported, or achieved through functions

Polymorphism

Supports polymorphism, allows objects to be treated uniformly

Limited or no support for polymorphism

Encapsulation

Enforces encapsulation, hides internal details

Limited encapsulation, data may be directly accessed

Flexibility

Offers greater flexibility and adaptability

May be less flexible and modular

Example Languages

Java, C++, Python, etc.

C, Pascal, Fortran, etc.