Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Post Type Selectors

Concepts of Data and Information


Data: Raw facts and numbers without meaning; it could be unprocessed and not make sense on its own.

Information: Processed, organized or structured data that has some meaning or context. Information is useful and meaningful data.



  • It can be either qualitative or quantitative.
  • Usually disorganized and has no structure.
  • E.g., A record of temperature readings taken at different times.


  • Structured and organized data.
  • It provides a background to something specific and is relevant as such.
  • E.g., Weather report summarizing temperature trends over a week

Data Types:

Structured Data:

  • This is often found in pre-specified forms like tables or databases.
  • For instance; database records shown in tabular format

Unstructured Data:

  • There is no predefined model for its organization
  • For example textual data, images, audio files

Data Sources:

Primary Data:

  • This type of data is collected directly for a particular purpose.
  • For example: surveys, experiments

Secondary Data:

  • Data collected by someone else for a different reason but used for another purpose.
  • For example existing research studies, government reports.

Data Life Cycle:

  1. Collection: Gathering basic raw data
  2. Storage: Keeping data for future use in storage
  3. Processing: Analyzing and converting it into useful information
  4. Output: It refers to the presentation of processed information.
  5. Feedback: This is used to improve the process of collecting and refining data.

Data Security and Privacy:

  • Security: Protecting data from unauthorized access, change, or destruction.
  • Privacy: Dealing with personal information of individuals righteously.

Information Processing:

  • Input: Raw data going into a system
  • Processing: Transforming the data into meaningful form
  • Output: Processed information that contains valuable content . Reportings, visualizations for example.

Information Quality:

  • Accuracy: The extent to which the data are free from errors and reliable.
  • Relevance: Appropriateness of the information to the task at hand.
  • Timeliness: The currency of the information indicates how recently it was updated.

Information Systems:

  • Components: Hardware, software, procedures/data and people
  • Purpose: To gather process store and distribute information.