Data: Raw facts and numbers without meaning; it could be unprocessed and not make sense on its own.
Information: Processed, organized or structured data that has some meaning or context. Information is useful and meaningful data.
- It can be either qualitative or quantitative.
- Usually disorganized and has no structure.
- E.g., A record of temperature readings taken at different times.
- Structured and organized data.
- It provides a background to something specific and is relevant as such.
- E.g., Weather report summarizing temperature trends over a week
- This is often found in pre-specified forms like tables or databases.
- For instance; database records shown in tabular format
- There is no predefined model for its organization
- For example textual data, images, audio files
- This type of data is collected directly for a particular purpose.
- For example: surveys, experiments
- Data collected by someone else for a different reason but used for another purpose.
- For example existing research studies, government reports.
Data Life Cycle:
- Collection: Gathering basic raw data
- Storage: Keeping data for future use in storage
- Processing: Analyzing and converting it into useful information
- Output: It refers to the presentation of processed information.
- Feedback: This is used to improve the process of collecting and refining data.
Data Security and Privacy:
- Security: Protecting data from unauthorized access, change, or destruction.
- Privacy: Dealing with personal information of individuals righteously.
- Input: Raw data going into a system
- Processing: Transforming the data into meaningful form
- Output: Processed information that contains valuable content . Reportings, visualizations for example.
- Accuracy: The extent to which the data are free from errors and reliable.
- Relevance: Appropriateness of the information to the task at hand.
- Timeliness: The currency of the information indicates how recently it was updated.
- Components: Hardware, software, procedures/data and people
- Purpose: To gather process store and distribute information.