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Explain various filter commands of Linux.

In Previous Years Questions

  • In Linux, filter commands are powerful tools that process text data and extract specific information.
  • They take input from standard input (stdin) and produce output to standard output (stdout).
  • By combining multiple filters, you can perform complex tasks on text data.

Some of the most common filter commands in Linux:

1. cat

  • Displays the contents of a file line by line.
  • Useful for viewing the contents of small files.

2. cut

  • Extracts specific columns or characters from a file.
  • Useful for processing data files with a specific format.

3. wc

  • Counts the number of lines, words, and bytes in a file.
  • Useful for getting quick statistics about a file’s size and content.

4. sort

  • Sorts lines of text alphabetically by default.
  • Offers various options to control the sorting order and criteria.

5. tee

  • Sends the output of a command to both the terminal and a file.
  • Useful for recording the output of a command while also viewing it on the screen.

6. tr

  • Translates characters from one set to another.
  • Useful for converting text to uppercase or lowercase, removing specific characters, etc.

7. uniq

  • Removes duplicate lines from a file.
  • Useful for cleaning up data and ensuring unique entries.

8. head

  • Displays the first n lines of a file.
  • Useful for checking the beginning of a file or getting a quick overview of its contents.

9. tail

  • Displays the last n lines of a file.
  • Useful for checking the end of a file or monitoring log files.

10. comm

  • Compares two sorted files and shows lines that are present in one file but not the other.
  • Useful for identifying differences between two versions of a file.