Reservation-based schemes refer to policies or programs that allocate a certain proportion of opportunities or resources to a particular group of people.
These schemes are usually designed to promote social equity, reduce discrimination and promote inclusivity.
There are several types of reservation-based schemes, and they can be applied to different areas of society, such as education, employment, politics, and public services.
1. Reservation in education: In many countries, there are policies that reserve a certain percentage of seats in educational institutions for students belonging to marginalized communities, such as scheduled castes, tribes, and other backward classes.
2. Reservation in employment: Some countries have policies that reserve a certain percentage of jobs in the public and private sectors for people from marginalized communities.
3. Reservation in politics: Some countries have quotas or reserved seats for representatives of marginalized communities in local and national legislative bodies.
4. Reservation in public services: Some countries reserve certain public services, such as healthcare and welfare benefits, for people from marginalized communities.
Reservation Based Schemes advantages:
1. Promoting social equity: By reserving opportunities or resources for marginalized communities, reservation-based schemes can help address historical and systemic inequalities and promote a more equal society.
2. Increasing diversity: Reservation-based schemes can increase diversity and representation in various areas of society, such as education, employment, and politics.
3. Empowering marginalized communities: Reservation-based schemes can empower marginalized communities by providing them with access to opportunities and resources that they may have been denied in the past.
4. Reducing discrimination: Reservation-based schemes can help reduce discrimination by ensuring that people from marginalized communities are not excluded from opportunities based on their background.
5. Encouraging merit-based selection: Reservation-based schemes can incentivize institutions to improve their selection processes and criteria to ensure that they are merit-based and fair.
Reservation Based Schemes disadvantages:
1. Reverse discrimination: Reservation-based schemes may be perceived as unfair by some individuals who feel that they are being discriminated against because of their background, as they may be excluded from opportunities even if they are qualified or more deserving than others who belong to a reserved category.
2. Stigmatization: Reservation-based schemes can create a stigma around certain groups, perpetuating the idea that they need special treatment and cannot compete on their own merits.
3. Inefficiency: Reservation-based schemes can lead to inefficiencies if they are not implemented properly, as they may result in the selection of less qualified candidates over more qualified ones.
4. Lack of merit-based selection: Reservation-based schemes can undermine merit-based selection if institutions prioritize quotas over qualifications, leading to a decline in the quality of education, employment, or other services.
5. Resistance to change: Reservation-based schemes can create resistance to change, as some individuals may feel that they are losing out on opportunities because of the reserved quotas, leading to resentment and hostility towards the policies.