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a) Vector processing
c) Virtual memory
d) PCI V s SCSI bus

a) Vector processing:

Vector processing is a type of parallel processing that involves the use of vector operations, in which a single instruction operates on multiple data elements simultaneously. Vector processing is commonly used in scientific simulations, image processing, and other applications that require intensive numerical computations. Vector processors typically have specialized hardware for vector operations, such as vector registers and vector pipelines.

b) RISC vs CISC:

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) and CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) are two different approaches to computer architecture. RISC processors have a simplified instruction set and execute instructions in a single clock cycle, which allows them to achieve high performance. CISC processors have a more complex instruction set that allows them to perform complex operations in a single instruction. RISC processors are typically used in embedded systems and high-performance computing, while CISC processors are used in desktop computers and servers.

c) Virtual memory:

Virtual memory is a technique that allows a computer to use more memory than is physically available by temporarily transferring data from RAM to disk. Virtual memory is managed by the operating system, which divides the memory into pages and maps these pages to physical memory or disk. When an application accesses a page that is not currently in physical memory, the operating system retrieves the page from disk and stores it in physical memory. Virtual memory allows multiple applications to share physical memory and can improve system performance by reducing the need for physical memory.

d) PCI vs SCSI bus:

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) and SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) are two different types of computer buses used for connecting peripheral devices. PCI is a high-speed bus that is commonly used for connecting devices such as graphics cards and network adapters to the motherboard. SCSI is a more specialized bus that is commonly used for connecting storage devices, such as hard drives and tape drives, to the computer. SCSI devices typically have faster transfer rates than PCI devices and can support more devices on a single bus. However, SCSI is generally more expensive and complex to implement than PCI.