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Difference between IPv4 and IPv6

Full FormInternet Protocol version 4Internet Protocol version 6
Address Length32 bits128 bits
Address FormatDotted Decimal Notation (e.g., groups of hexadecimal numbers (e.g., 2001:0db8::1)
Address SpaceLimited (approximately 4.3 billion addresses)Vast (approximately 3.4 x 10^38 addresses)
Address AssignmentManual (DHCP, static)Autoconfiguration (stateless or stateful)
Network Address Translation (NAT)Commonly used to share a single public IP address among multiple devicesLess reliance on NAT, as ample addresses are available
Header FormatFixed header lengthSimplified and more efficient header format
RoutingRequires additional protocols for routing and network discovery (e.g., ARP)Built-in support for routing and network discovery (e.g., ICMPv6)
Quality of Service (QoS)Limited supportImproved support for QoS and traffic prioritization
SecurityRelies on additional security mechanisms (e.g., IPsec)Built-in support for IPsec and improved security features
Transition MechanismsSeveral mechanisms developed (e.g., dual-stack, tunneling)Designed to support smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6