Monitors use the concept of data abstraction, encapsulate shared data structure with their operations and hide their representations, that is, make shared data structures abstract data types. 

One of the most important features of monitors is that shared data is resident in the monitor rather than in any of the client units. Because all accesses are resident in the monitor, the monitor implementation can be made to guarantee synchronized access by simply allowing only one access at a time.

Principles of Programming Languages: covered following topics in PPL.

Previous years solved papers:

A list of Video lectures


  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, “Programming Languages”, 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley