**1. What type of loading does pure bending involve?**

a) Torsional loading

b) Axial loading

c) Shear loading

d) Bending loading

**Answer: d) Bending loading**

Explanation: Pure bending involves the application of bending moments to a structural member without any axial or torsional loads. It leads to deformation characterized by curvature along the axis of the member.

**2. In symmetric members under pure bending, where is the neutral axis located?**

a) At the centroid of the section

b) At the top surface of the section

c) At the bottom surface of the section

d) At the extreme fibers of the section

**Answer: a) At the centroid of the section**

Explanation: In symmetric members under pure bending, the neutral axis is located at the centroid of the cross-sectional area. It’s the axis where the stress is zero during bending.

**3. What is the primary cause of deformation in a beam under bending?**

a) Shear stress

b) Axial stress

c) Tensile stress

d) Bending stress

**Answer: d) Bending stress**

Explanation: Bending stress is the primary cause of deformation in a beam under bending. It results from the moment applied to the beam, causing it to bend and inducing stress throughout its cross-section.

**4. When a composite section is subjected to bending, what property governs the distribution of stresses?**

a) Material density

b) Modulus of elasticity

c) Cross-sectional area

d) Poisson’s ratio

**Answer: b) Modulus of elasticity**

Explanation: The modulus of elasticity of the constituent materials governs the distribution of stresses in a composite section subjected to bending. Materials with different moduli of elasticity will experience different levels of stress.

**5. In eccentric axial loading, the applied load does not pass through the centroid of the section, resulting in what kind of stress?**

a) Bending stress

b) Shear stress

c) Torsional stress

d) Axial stress

**Answer: a) Bending stress**

Explanation: In eccentric axial loading, the applied load does not pass through the centroid of the section, leading to bending moments and hence bending stress in addition to axial stress.

**6. What is the graphical representation of shear force along the length of a beam called?**

a) Stress diagram

b) Moment diagram

c) Shear force diagram

d) Bending moment diagram

**Answer: c) Shear force diagram**

Explanation: A shear force diagram illustrates the variation of shear force along the length of a beam. It shows the magnitude and direction of the internal shear forces at different points along the beam.

**7. According to the relationship between load, shear, and bending moment, what is the derivative of shear force with respect to the x-coordinate?**

a) Load

b) Bending moment

c) Shear stress

d) Slope of the beam

**Answer: a) Load**

Explanation: The derivative of shear force with respect to the x-coordinate gives the rate of change of load along the beam’s length. This relationship is fundamental in analyzing beam behavior.

**8. What type of stress arises in beams due to the internal shear forces?**

a) Tensile stress

b) Compressive stress

c) Bending stress

d) Shear stress

**Answer: d) Shear stress**

Explanation: Internal shear forces in beams lead to shear stress, which acts parallel to the cross-section and contributes to the beam’s deformation and failure.

**9. What type of energy is stored in a beam subjected to bending?**

a) Kinetic energy

b) Potential energy

c) Strain energy

d) Thermal energy

**Answer: c) Strain energy**

Explanation: Strain energy is stored in a beam subjected to bending due to the deformation caused by bending stresses. It represents the energy absorbed by the material when it deforms elastically.

**10. Which method is used to determine the deflection of beams by integrating the equation of the elastic curve?**

a) Macaulay’s method

b) Area moment method

c) Finite element method

d) Method of joints

**Answer: a) Macaulay’s method**

Explanation: Macaulay’s method is a mathematical technique used to determine the deflection of beams by integrating the equation of the elastic curve. It’s particularly useful for solving complex loading and support conditions.