**1. Which of the following is NOT a measure of central tendency?**

a) Mean

b) Median

c) Mode

d) Range

**Answer: d) Range**

Explanation: The range is a measure of variability, not central tendency. It represents the difference between the maximum and minimum values in a dataset.

**2. Which distribution is commonly used to model continuous data in statistical quality control?**

a) Binomial distribution

b) Poisson distribution

c) Normal distribution

d) Exponential distribution

**Answer: c) Normal distribution**

Explanation: The normal distribution is widely used in statistical quality control to represent continuous data due to its symmetrical bell-shaped curve.

**3. What does the Central Limit Theorem state?**

a) The mean of a sample approaches the population mean as the sample size increases.

b) The variability of a sample decreases as the sample size increases.

c) The distribution of sample means approximates a normal distribution regardless of the population distribution, given a large sample size.

d) The median of a sample is equal to the population median.

**Answer: c) The distribution of sample means approximates a normal distribution regardless of the population distribution, given a large sample size.**

Explanation: The Central Limit Theorem states that as the sample size increases, the distribution of sample means will approach a normal distribution, regardless of the population distribution.

**4. Which chart is commonly used for monitoring the number of defects per unit in a process?**

a) p-chart

b) np-chart

c) c-chart

d) u-chart

**Answer: c) c-chart**

Explanation: The c-chart, or count chart, is used for monitoring the number of defects per unit in a process. It is appropriate when the number of defects can vary from unit to unit.

**5. What does the “P” in the PDSA cycle stand for?**

a) Proceed

b) Plan

c) Process

d) Probabilistic

**Answer: b) Plan**

Explanation: The PDSA cycle stands for Plan, Do, Study, Act. It is a systematic framework for continuous improvement in quality management.

**6. Which control chart is used for monitoring the proportion of nonconforming items in a sample?**

a) p-chart

b) np-chart

c) c-chart

d) u-chart

**Answer: a) p-chart**

Explanation: The p-chart, or proportion chart, is used for monitoring the proportion of nonconforming items in a sample.

**7. In statistical quality control, what does “u” stand for in the u-chart?**

a) Upper control limit

b) Unit deviation

c) Unit standard deviation

d) Nonconformities per unit

**Answer: d) Nonconformities per unit**

Explanation: The u-chart is used for monitoring the number of nonconformities per unit in a process.

**8. Which type of control chart is suitable for monitoring individual data points over time?**

a) p-chart

b) R-chart

c) np-chart

d) c-chart

**Answer: b) R-chart**

Explanation: The R-chart, or range chart, is used for monitoring the variability of individual data points over time.

**9. Which statistical quality control chart is used for monitoring the number of nonconformities in a sample of constant size?**

a) p-chart

b) np-chart

c) c-chart

d) u-chart

**Answer: b) np-chart**

Explanation: The np-chart is used for monitoring the number of nonconformities in a sample of constant size.

**10. What is the primary purpose of trial control limits in control charting?**

a) To establish the normal variation of a process.

b) To identify points that may indicate a process shift or instability.

c) To set the upper and lower specification limits.

d) To determine the process capability index.

**Answer: a) To establish the normal variation of a process.**

Explanation: Trial control limits are initially set to help establish the normal variation of a process before stable control limits are determined.

**11. Which type of control chart is used when the data can be categorized into discrete categories?**

a) R-chart

b) s-chart

c) Attribute control chart

d) Variable control chart

**Answer: c) Attribute control chart**

Explanation: Attribute control charts are used when data can be categorized into discrete categories, such as pass/fail or conforming/nonconforming.

**12. What is the purpose of the “Act” phase in the PDSA cycle?**

a) To analyze the results of the study phase.

b) To make necessary changes based on the study phase findings.

c) To implement the planned changes.

d) To document the improvement process.

**Answer: b) To make necessary changes based on the study phase findings.**

Explanation: The Act phase in the PDSA cycle involves implementing changes based on the findings and results obtained during the study phase.

**13. Which chart is used to monitor the variability of individual measurements within a sample?**

a) p-chart

b) np-chart

c) R-chart

d) c-chart

**Answer: c) R-chart**

Explanation: The R-chart, or range chart, is used to monitor the variability of individual measurements within a sample.

**14. Which type of control chart is suitable for monitoring continuous data over time?**

a) p-chart

b) c-chart

c) Variable control chart

d) Attribute control chart

**Answer: c) Variable control chart**

Explanation: Variable control charts are suitable for monitoring continuous data over time, such as measurements of length, weight, or time.

**15. In statistical quality control, what does the “R” stand for in the R-chart?**

a) Range

b) Rate

c) Run

d) Resistance

**Answer: a) Range**

Explanation: The R-chart is used to monitor the range, which represents the variability of individual measurements within a sample.

**16. Which control chart is used for monitoring the number of nonconformities per unit in a process that can produce varying numbers of units?**

a) p-chart

b) np-chart

c) c-chart

d) u-chart

**Answer: d) u-chart**

Explanation: The u-chart is used for monitoring the number of nonconformities per unit in a process that can produce varying numbers of units.

**17. What does the “Study” phase in the PDSA cycle involve?**

a) Implementing planned changes

b) Analyzing the results of the study

c) Documenting the improvement process

d) Testing and observing the effects of planned changes

**Answer: d) Testing and observing the effects of planned changes**

Explanation: The Study phase in the PDSA cycle involves testing and observing the effects of planned changes to assess their effectiveness.

**18. Which control chart is used for monitoring the number of nonconformities in a sample of constant size?**

a) p-chart

b) np-chart

c) c-chart

d) u-chart

**Answer: b) np-chart**

Explanation: The np-chart is used for monitoring the number of nonconformities in a sample of constant size.

**19. What does the “Do” phase in the PDSA cycle involve?**

a) Analyzing the results of the study phase

b) Documenting the improvement process

c) Implementing planned changes

d) Testing and observing the effects of planned changes

**Answer: c) Implementing planned changes**

Explanation: The Do phase in the PDSA cycle involves implementing planned changes in the process or system.

**20. Which control chart is used for monitoring the proportion of nonconforming items in a sample?**

a) p-chart

b) np-chart

c) c-chart

d) u-chart

**Answer: a) p-chart**

Explanation: The p-chart is used for monitoring the proportion of nonconforming items in a sample.