1. What is the purpose of asymptotic notation in algorithm analysis?

a. To describe the actual running time of an algorithm

b. To provide a precise measurement of an algorithm’s execution time

c. To analyze the efficiency of an algorithm in terms of its input size

d. To count the number of basic operations in an algorithm

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Answer: c

2. Which sorting algorithm is based on the divide and conquer technique?

a. Bubble Sort

b. Insertion Sort

c. Heap Sort

d. Selection Sort

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Answer: c

3. What is the time complexity of binary search in the worst-case scenario?

a. O(1)

b. O(log n)

c. O(n)

d. O(n^2)

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Answer: b

4. In the divide and conquer technique, which algorithm is used for matrix multiplication?

a. Quick Sort

b. Merge Sort

c. Strassen’s Algorithm

d. Binary Search

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Answer: c

5. Which strategy is used in Huffman coding?

a. Dynamic Programming

b. Greedy Method

c. Divide and Conquer

d. Backtracking

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Answer: b

6. What problem does the Knapsack problem address?

a. Sorting items in a backpack

b. Maximizing the profit of selected items with limited capacity

c. Finding the minimum spanning tree

d. Searching for a specific item in a database

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Answer: b

7. Which algorithm is commonly used for solving the Minimum Spanning Tree problem?

a. Kruskal’s Algorithm

b. Prim’s Algorithm

c. Dijkstra’s Algorithm

d. Bellman-Ford Algorithm

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Answer: a

8. Which algorithm is used for solving the All Pairs Shortest Path problem?

a. Bellman-Ford Algorithm

b. Dijkstra’s Algorithm

c. Floyd-Warshall Algorithm

d. Kruskal’s Algorithm

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Answer: c

9. What type of problems are suitable for the backtracking technique?

a. Optimization problems

b. Search problems

c. Sorting problems

d. All of the above

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Answer: d

10. Which problem involves finding a feasible solution incrementally and backing up when necessary?

a. 0/1 Knapsack Problem

b. Hamiltonian Cycle Problem

c. Graph Coloring Problem

d. Job Sequencing with Deadlines

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Answer: a

11. The branch and bound method is used for which type of problems?

a. Dynamic Programming

b. Search problems

c. Optimization problems

d. Sorting problems

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Answer: c

12. What is the primary purpose of the lower bound theory in algorithm analysis?

a. To establish the lower limit of the algorithm’s efficiency

b. To prove the optimality of an algorithm

c. To compare algorithms in terms of their upper bounds

d. To analyze the average-case complexity of an algorithm

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Answer: a

13. Which algorithmic design technique is characterized by breaking a problem into subproblems and solving each subproblem independently?

a. Divide and Conquer

b. Greedy Method

c. Dynamic Programming

d. Backtracking

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Answer: a

14. In parallel algorithms, what is the goal?

a. Minimizing the space complexity

b. Maximizing the time complexity

c. Simultaneous execution of multiple tasks

d. Avoiding recursion

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Answer: c

15. What is the key feature of binary search trees?

a. All nodes in the left subtree are greater than the root

b. All nodes in the right subtree are greater than the root

c. The height of the tree is minimized

d. Both a and b

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Answer: d

16. Which tree structure is designed to maintain balance automatically?

a. Binary Search Tree

b. 2-3 Tree

c. B-Tree

d. AVL Tree

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Answer: c

17. What is the primary advantage of B-trees over binary search trees?

a. B-trees have a simpler structure

b. B-trees have a lower space complexity

c. B-trees are more efficient for disk-based storage

d. B-trees have a faster search time

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Answer: c

18. Which traversal technique visits nodes in the following order: left, root, right?

a. Inorder

b. Preorder

c. Postorder

d. Level order

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Answer: b

19. What is NP-completeness related to in computer science?

a. Polynomial time algorithms

b. Non-deterministic Polynomial time problems

c. Optimal algorithms

d. Parallel algorithms

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Answer: b

20. What is the time complexity of heap sort in the worst-case scenario?

a. O(n)

b. O(log n)

c. O(n log n)

d. O(n^2)

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Answer: c

21. Which algorithm is used for optimal merging of sorted sequences?

a. Quick Sort

b. Merge Sort

c. Heap Sort

d. Bubble Sort

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Answer: b

22. Which of the following is a drawback of using the Greedy method?

a. It may not always guarantee an optimal solution

b. It is computationally expensive

c. It is only suitable for small datasets

d. It always results in the shortest path

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Answer: a

23. What is the primary objective of the Floyd-Warshall algorithm?

a. Finding the minimum spanning tree

b. Shortest path in a graph with positive weights

c. All Pairs Shortest Path in a weighted graph

d. Sorting a list of elements

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Answer: c

24. Which algorithm is used for job sequencing with deadlines?

a. Greedy method

b. Dynamic Programming

c. Backtracking

d. Divide and Conquer

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Answer: a

25. In the context of dynamic programming, what is memoization?

a. Storing the results of expensive function calls and returning the cached result when the same inputs occur again

b. Breaking a problem into smaller overlapping subproblems

c. Solving problems incrementally and backing up when necessary

d. Searching for a feasible solution in a solution space

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Answer: a

26. What problem does the 2-3 tree address?

a. Sorting a list of elements

b. Balancing binary search trees

c. All Pairs Shortest Path

d. Maintaining balance in a search tree

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Answer: d

27. Which algorithm is used for solving the traveling salesman problem using the branch and bound method?

a. Dijkstra’s Algorithm

b. Prim’s Algorithm

c. Bellman-Ford Algorithm

d. Held-Karp Algorithm

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Answer: d

28. What does the term “NP” stand for in NP-completeness?

a. Non-Polynomial

b. Non-Parallel

c. Non-Practical

d. Non-Predictable

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Answer: c

29. Which traversal technique visits nodes in the following order: left, right, root?

a. Inorder

b. Preorder

c. Postorder

d. Level order

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Answer: c

30. What is the primary characteristic of a Hamiltonian cycle in a graph?

a. It visits each vertex exactly once and returns to the starting vertex

b. It visits each edge exactly once

c. It has the minimum number of edges

d. It does not visit all vertices

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Answer: a

31. In the context of parallel algorithms, what does “task parallelism” refer to?

a. Breaking down a task into smaller parallel tasks

b. Executing tasks sequentially

c. Avoiding parallelism

d. Parallel execution of unrelated tasks

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Answer: a

32. What is the primary goal of a 3-4 tree?

a. Maintaining balance in a search tree

b. Sorting a list of elements

c. Searching for the shortest path in a graph

d. All Pairs Shortest Path

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Answer: a

33. Which algorithm is used for optimal merge patterns?

a. Quick Sort

b. Merge Sort

c. Heap Sort

d. Bubble Sort

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Answer: b

34. What is the purpose of the Knapsack problem?

a. Sorting items in a backpack

b. Maximizing the profit of selected items with limited capacity

c. Finding the minimum spanning tree

d. Searching for a specific item in a database

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Answer: b

35. Which algorithm is used for optimal merge patterns?

a. Quick Sort

b. Merge Sort

c. Heap Sort

d. Bubble Sort

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Answer: b

36. What does the term “backtracking” imply?

a. Iterating backward through a list

b. Solving problems incrementally and backing up when necessary

c. Reversing the order of elements in an array

d. Searching for a solution in a forward direction

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Answer: b

37. What does the term “reliability design” refer to in dynamic programming?

a. Designing algorithms with high reliability

b. Ensuring the correctness of a solution

c. Designing systems that can withstand failures

d. Searching for reliable paths in a graph

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Answer: c

38. What is the primary objective of the 0/1 Knapsack problem?

a. Maximizing the profit of selected items with limited capacity

b. Sorting items in a backpack

c. Finding the minimum spanning tree

d. Searching for a specific item in a database

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Answer: a

39. Which algorithm is used for optimal merge patterns?

a. Quick Sort

b. Merge Sort

c. Heap Sort

d. Bubble Sort

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Answer: b

40. What is the primary goal of Huffman coding?

a. Sorting a list of elements

b. Minimizing the length of encoded messages

c. Finding the minimum spanning tree

d. Searching for a specific item in a database

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Answer: b

41. What is the primary objective of the 0/1 Knapsack problem?

a. Maximizing the profit of selected items with limited capacity

b. Sorting items in a backpack

c. Finding the minimum spanning tree

d. Searching for a specific item in a database

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Answer: a

42. Which algorithm is commonly used for solving the Minimum Spanning Tree problem?

a. Kruskal’s Algorithm

b. Prim’s Algorithm

c. Dijkstra’s Algorithm

d. Bellman-Ford Algorithm

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Answer: a

43. What is the primary goal of Huffman coding?

a. Sorting a list of elements

b. Minimizing the length of encoded messages

c. Finding the minimum spanning tree

d. Searching for a specific item in a database

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Answer: b

44. What is the time complexity of the Bubble Sort algorithm in the worst-case scenario?

a. O(1)

b. O(n)

c. O(n^2)

d. O(n log n)

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Answer: c

45. What is the primary purpose of asymptotic notation in algorithm analysis?

a. To describe the actual running time of an algorithm

b. To provide a precise measurement of an algorithm’s execution time

c. To analyze the efficiency of an algorithm in terms of its input size

d. To count the number of basic operations in an algorithm

## View answer

Answer: c

46. Which algorithm is used for solving the traveling salesman problem using the branch and bound method?

a. Dijkstra’s Algorithm

b. Prim’s Algorithm

c. Bellman-Ford Algorithm

d. Held-Karp Algorithm

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Answer: d

47. What is the primary objective of the Floyd-Warshall algorithm?

a. Finding the minimum spanning tree

b. Shortest path in a graph with positive weights

c. All Pairs Shortest Path in a weighted graph

d. Sorting a list of elements

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Answer: c

48. Which traversal technique visits nodes in the following order: left, root, right?

a. Inorder

b. Preorder

c. Postorder

d. Level order

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Answer: b

49. What is the primary objective of the Floyd-Warshall algorithm?

a. Finding the minimum spanning tree

b. Shortest path in a graph with positive weights

c. All Pairs Shortest Path in a weighted graph

d. Sorting a list of elements

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Answer: c

50. What does the dynamic programming approach focus on?

a. Greedy optimization

b. Solving problems recursively

c. Memoization of subproblem solutions

d. Breaking down a problem into smaller overlapping subproblems

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Answer: d