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# DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS MCQs

1. Which of the following statistical methods is primarily used to describe the characteristics of a dataset?

a) Probability Distributions
b) Inferential Statistics
c) Hypothesis Testing
d) Regression Analysis

Explanation: Probability distributions are used in descriptive statistics to summarize and describe the features of a dataset, such as central tendency, dispersion, and shape.

2. Inferential statistics is primarily concerned with:

a) Describing the characteristics of a dataset
b) Making predictions based on sample data
c) Drawing conclusions about a population from sample data
d) Testing hypotheses using regression analysis

Explanation: Inferential statistics involves making inferences or generalizations about a population based on data collected from a sample of that population.

3. Which statistical technique is used to determine if there is a significant relationship between two or more variables?

a) Probability Distributions
b) Inferential Statistics
c) Regression Analysis
d) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Explanation: Regression analysis is used to examine the relationship between one dependent variable and one or more independent variables.

4. What does ANOVA stand for?

a) Analysis of Numerical Variability and Association
b) Analysis of Nominal Variables and Associations
c) Analysis of Variance
d) Assessment of Null Hypothesis Validity

Explanation: ANOVA is a statistical method used to analyze the differences among group means in a sample.

5. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis is typically:

a) The hypothesis being tested
b) A statement that there is no effect or no difference
c) The alternative hypothesis
d) A statement of directionality

Answer: b) A statement that there is no effect or no difference
Explanation: The null hypothesis (H0) represents the assumption that there is no significant difference or effect present in the population.

6. Which statistical test would you use to compare the means of more than two groups?

a) t-test
b) Chi-square test
c) ANOVA
d) Regression analysis

Explanation: ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is used to compare means across three or more groups.

7. A p-value in hypothesis testing represents:

a) The probability of committing a Type I error
b) The probability of observing the test statistic if the null hypothesis is true
c) The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true
d) The strength of the relationship between variables

Answer: b) The probability of observing the test statistic if the null hypothesis is true
Explanation: The p-value indicates the probability of obtaining the observed results, or more extreme results, under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.

8. When conducting regression analysis, the variable being predicted is called the:

a) Independent variable
b) Dependent variable
c) Explanatory variable
d) Control variable

Explanation: In regression analysis, the dependent variable is the variable being predicted or explained by the independent variable(s).

9. Which of the following is NOT an assumption of regression analysis?

a) Linearity
b) Homoscedasticity
c) Independence of observations
d) Equal group sizes