1.Which of the following terms refers to a weakness in a system that could be exploited to compromise security?

A) Threat

B) Vulnerability

C) Exploit

D) Authentication

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Answer: B) Vulnerability

Explanation: A vulnerability is a weakness in a system that could be exploited by a threat to cause harm.

2.What principle of security ensures that information is accessible only to those who are authorized to access it?

A) Confidentiality

B) Integrity

C) Availability

D) Authentication

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Answer: A) Confidentiality

Explanation: Confidentiality ensures that information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals or systems.

3.Which security principle ensures that data remains accurate and consistent over its entire lifecycle?

A) Confidentiality

B) Integrity

C) Availability

D) Authentication

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Answer: B) Integrity

Explanation: Integrity ensures that data remains accurate and consistent, and has not been altered by unauthorized means.

4.Which term refers to the process of verifying the identity of a user or system?

A) Threat

B) Vulnerability

C) Exploit

D) Authentication

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Answer: D) Authentication

Explanation: Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or system.

5.Nonrepudiation ensures that:

A) Data is accessible only to authorized users.

B) Data remains accurate and consistent.

C) Users cannot deny their actions or transactions.

D) Systems are protected against unauthorized access.

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Answer: C) Users cannot deny their actions or transactions.

Explanation: Nonrepudiation ensures that users cannot deny the authenticity of their actions or transactions.

6.Which of the following is NOT a category of security attack?

A) Physical

B) Logical

C) Social

D) Environmental

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Answer: D) Environmental

Explanation: The categories of security attacks typically include physical, logical, and social attacks.

7.Which mathematical principle forms the foundation for many cryptographic algorithms?

A) Pythagoras’ Theorem

B) Fermat’s Theorem

C) Euler’s Theorem

D) Pascal’s Theorem

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Answer: C) Euler’s Theorem

Explanation: Euler’s Theorem is fundamental in cryptography, forming the basis for various cryptographic algorithms.

8.What is the key concept behind the Euclidean Algorithm?

A) Finding prime numbers

B) Solving modular equations

C) Computing greatest common divisors

D) Calculating discrete logarithms

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Answer: C) Computing greatest common divisors

Explanation: The Euclidean Algorithm is used to compute the greatest common divisor of two integers.

9.The Chinese Remainder Theorem is used for:

A) Calculating discrete logarithms

B) Solving systems of linear equations

C) Factoring large integers

D) Finding solutions to simultaneous congruences

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Answer: D) Finding solutions to simultaneous congruences

Explanation: The Chinese Remainder Theorem is used to find solutions to a system of simultaneous congruences.

10.What is the significance of prime numbers in cryptography?

A) They ensure nonrepudiation

B) They form the basis of symmetric encryption

C) They are used in key exchange algorithms

D) They are difficult to factorize, making them useful in encryption schemes

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Answer: D) They are difficult to factorize, making them useful in encryption schemes

Explanation: Prime numbers are crucial in cryptography because of their difficulty in factorization, which forms the basis of many encryption schemes.