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Discuss confinement techniques in details.

Following are the various confinement techniques :

  1. Chroot (change root):
    • Description: Chroot is a Unix operation that changes the apparent root directory for a running process and its child processes.
    • Implementation:
      • Create a directory tree containing necessary system files for the process.
      • Use the chroot system call to set the root directory to this tree.
    • Effect:
      • Limits the process to the designated directory, creating a “chroot jail.”
      • Prevents access to files outside the jail, enhancing security.
    • Use Case: Isolating processes, particularly during system maintenance or when running potentially unsafe programs.
  2. Jailkits:
    • Description: Jailkit is a utility set to restrict user accounts to specific files or commands, often utilizing chroot.
    • Features:
      • Allows setting up chroot shells with limited commands.
      • Emphasizes security with automated checks and useful log messages.
    • Application: Often used in network security appliances and scenarios requiring fine-grained access control.
  3. FreeBSD Jail:
    • Description: FreeBSD jail is an OS-level virtualization feature in the FreeBSD operating system.
    • Implementation:
      • Divides a FreeBSD system into independent mini-systems (jails) sharing the same kernel.
      • Minimal overhead, efficient resource utilization.
    • Origin: Developed to ensure clear separation between services and customer environments in shared hosting for security and administration ease.
  4. System Call Interposition:
    • Description: A technique for monitoring and regulating program behaviors by intercepting system calls.
    • Functionality:
      • Enables monitoring of interactions with network, file system, and other sensitive resources.
      • Offers insights into program behavior, enhancing security.
    • Use Cases: Effective for building security systems that need comprehensive control over program interactions with system resources.

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